Destruction and Human Remains
Destruction and human remains investigates a crucial question frequently neglected in academic debate in the fields of mass violence and genocide studies: what is done to the bodies of the victims after they are killed? In the context of mass violence, death does not constitute the end of the executors' work. Their victims' remains are often treated and manipulated in very specific ways, amounting in some cases to true social engineering with often remarkable ingenuity. To address these seldom-documented phenomena, this volume includes chapters based on extensive primary and archival research to explore by why, how and by whom these acts have been committed through recent history. The book opens this line of enquiry by investigating the ideological, technical and practical motivations for the varying practices pursued by the perpetrator, examining a diverse range of historical events from throughout the twentieth century and across the globe. These nine original chapters explore this demolition of the body through the use of often systemic, bureaucratic and industrial processes, whether by disposal, concealment, exhibition or complete bodily annihilation, to display the intentions and socio-political frameworks of governments, perpetrators and bystanders. Never before has a single publication brought together the extensive amount of work devoted to the human body on the one hand and to mass violence on the other, and until now the question of the body in the context of mass violence has remained a largely unexplored area. Interdisciplinary in scope, Destruction and human remains will appeal to readers interested in the history and implications of genocide and mass violence, including researchers in anthropology, sociology, history, politics and modern warfare.
The Analysis of Burned Human Remains
The Analysis of Burned Human Remains, Second Edition, provides a primary source for osteologists and the medical/legal community for the understanding of burned bone remains in forensic or archaeological contexts. It describes in detail the changes in human bone and soft tissues as a body burns at both the chemical and gross levels and provides an overview of the current procedures in burned bone study. Case studies in forensic and archaeological settings aid those interested in the analysis of burned human bodies, from death scene investigators to biological anthropologists. A timely state-of-the-art analyses of burned bone studies for bioarchaeologists and forensic anthropologists Covers the diagnostic patterning of color changes, the positioning of the body, and presence (or absence of soft tissues during the burning event Chapters on bones and teeth give step-by-step recommendations for hot to study and recognize burned hard tissues New chapters include improved analyses of thermally induced impacts on bone microstructure, development, and appearance; they also cover sites from a greater geographic range adding Alaska, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, and Southeast Asia
Human Remains in Society
Human remains in society presents a groundbreaking account of the treatment and commemoration of dead bodies resulting from incidents of genocide and mass violence. Whether reburied, concealed, stored, abandoned or publically displayed, human remains raise a vast number of questions regardingsocial, legal and ethical uses by communities, public institutions and civil society organisations. Through a diverse range of international case studies, across multiple continents, this highly innovative book explores the effect of dead bodies or body parts, either desired or unintended, on various political, cultural or religious practices. How, for instance, do issues of confiscation,concealment or the destruction of human remains in mass crime impact on transitional processes, commemoration or judicial procedures? Multidisciplinary in scope, Human remains in society will appeal to readers interested in the crucial phase of post-conflict reconciliation. This includes students and researchers of history, anthropology, sociology, archaeology, law, politics and modern warfare.
Human Remains and Identification
Human remains and identification presents a pioneering investigation into the practices and methodologies used in the search for and exhumation of dead bodies resulting from mass violence. Previously absent from forensic debate, social scientists and historians here confront historical and contemporary exhumations with the application of social context to create an innovative and interdisciplinary dialogue. Never before has a single volume examined the context of motivations and interests behind these pursuits, each chapter enlightening the political, social and legal aspects of mass crime and its aftermaths. The book argues that the emergence of new technologies to facilitate the identification of dead bodies has led to a 'forensic turn', normalising exhumations as a method of dealing with human remains en masse. However, are these exhumations always made for legitimate reasons? And what can we learn about societies from the way in which they deal with this consequence of mass violence? Multidisciplinary in scope, this book presents a ground-breaking selection of international case studies, including the identification of corpses by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the resurfacing of human remains from the Gulag and the sites of Jewish massacres from the Holocaust. Human remains and identification will appeal to readers interested in understanding this crucial phase of mass violence's aftermath, such as researchers in history, anthropology, sociology, forensic science, law, politics and modern warfare.
The Effects of Fire on Human Remains Characteristics of Taphonomy and Trauma
Burned human remains have been analyzed for centuries, beginning with archaeological contexts of cremation mortuary practices and vanished societies to modern contexts of residential, vehicular, commercial, and the occasional use of fire to destroy evidence of a body. Heat-related damage to a victim's body presents interesting challenges for analysis. Heat reduces recognizable features of the body's original appearance by systematically destroying soft anatomy of skin, fat, and muscle that protects underlying bone. Burned remains left for analysis represent an arrested phase of extremely dynamic processes involving intense heat, combustion, organic degradation, distortion of the body's position, plus any traumatic event pre or post-fire. The feeling of being overwhelmed is minimized when analysis of burn victims is approached not as a charred mass of tissue, but rather as an integration of specialized parts that burn according to their unique functional anatomy and time exposed to heat.
Curating Human Remains
The difficult and sensitive issue of how museums and other repositories should treat human remains in their possession is here addressed through a number of important case studies.
Links have recently been established between the study of death assemblages by archaeologists and paleontologists (taphonomy) and the application of physical anthropology concepts to the medicolegal investigation of death (forensic anthropology). Forensic Taphonomy explains these links in a broad-based, multidisciplinary volume. It applies taphonomic models in modern forensic contexts and uses forensic cases to extend taphonomic theories. Review articles, case reports, and chapters on methodology round out this book's unique approach to forensic science.
The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial
The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial reviews the current state of mortuary archaeology and its practice, highlighting its often contentious place in the modern socio-politics of archaeology. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading, international scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods, such as the middle palaeolithic to the twentieth century, and geographical areas which include Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Combining up-to-date knowledge of relevant archaeological research with critical assessments of the theme and an evaluation of future research trajectories, it draws attention to the social, symbolic, and theoretical aspects of interpreting mortuary archaeology. The volume is well-illustrated with maps, plans, photographs, and illustrations and is ideally suited for students and researchers.
A Companion to Forensic Anthropology
A Companion to Forensic Anthropology presents the most comprehensive assessment of the philosophy, goals, and practice of forensic anthropology currently available, with chapters by renowned international scholars and experts. Highlights the latest advances in forensic anthropology research, as well as the most effective practices and techniques used by professional forensic anthropologists in the field Illustrates the development of skeletal biological profiles and offers important new evidence on statistical validation of these analytical methods. Evaluates the goals and methods of forensic archaeology, including the preservation of context at surface-scattered remains, buried bodies and fatal fire scenes, and recovery and identification issues related to large-scale mass disaster scenes and mass grave excavation.
Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains
Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations. Key Features *Comprehensive review of skeletal diseases encountered in archeological human remains * More than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal disease including both microscopic and gross features * Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries for over 35 years * Review of important theoretical issues in interpreting evidence of skeletal disease in archeological human populations